air lemon



  • 3 biji lemon
  • 500 ml air soda
  • 200 ml air
  • 150 gm gula
  • Ketulan ais secukupnya

Resepi puding

Bahan-bahan untuk puding roti:

8 keping roti

2 cawan susu segar

4 sudu besar gula halus

2 biji telur

1 sudu teh esen vanilla

2 sudu besar mentega (cairkan)

1 kotak kecil kismis

Bahan-bahan untuk sos kastard:

1 tin susu cair

1/4 tin air (guna tin susu cair tadi)

2 sudu besar tepung kastad

2 sudu besar gula halus

1 sudu teh esen vanillapuding-roti-sos-kastard

learning styles

The VARK Questionnaire

setelah buat questionare saya memiliki stail pembelajaran READ/WRITE

Read/Write Strategies

Three Domains of Learning – Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor



Bloom’s Taxonomy – Cognitive Domain – (intellect – knowledge – ‘think’)




Bloom’s Taxonomy – Affective Domain – (emotions – attitude – ‘feel’)




Bloom’s Taxonomy – Psychomotor Domain – (physical – skills – ‘do’)




Definition e-library

e-librarynoun [ C ]



a website that makes books and other reading material available tousers:

The health e-library offers journals, books, guidelines, and patient information.

What is an e-database?

An e-database is an organized collection of information, of a particular subject or multi-disciplinary subject areas.
The information of an e-database can be searched and retrieved electronically.

Contents include journal articles, newspaper articles, book reviews and conference proceedings, etc.

Update frequency:
Usually updated on a daily, weekly, monthly or quarterly basis.

Types of e-databases: Full-text vs. Bibliographic
Full-text databases contain the whole content of an article such as citation information, text, illustrations, diagrams and tables.
Bibliographic databases only contain citation information of an article, such as author name, journal title, publication date and page numbers.


Types of Databases

Databases can be organized by the scope of the information they contain. Being aware of what this scope is can be helpful in selecting a database to begin your information search.

The Undergraduate Library’s Find Articles Guide has databases listed by specific discipline/subject categories for your assistance.

General Interest Databases

General interest databases are a great place to begin research or for a general topic. These databases contain the broadest range of materials and include many different subjects and disciplines. Examples of general interest databases include:

  • Academic Search Complete (EBSCO) – Identifies magazine and journals articles in most subject areas including social sciences, humanities, education, computer sciences, engineering, medical sciences, and ethnic studies.
  • Academic OneFile (Infotrac) – This multi-disciplinary database provides access to over 3000 journals, with links to full text for over half of the journals.

Discipline-Specific Databases

Discipline-based databases are more focused then general interest databases. These databases include materials in several related subject areas. Materials are usually only from professional/trade publications and scholarly/academic journals. If you are having trouble finding information on your topic in general interest databases, try a discipline-based database.

  • Ethnic NewsWatch – Identifies full text access for 200 newspapers and journals of the ethnic, minority, and native press.
  • PAIS (Public Affairs Information Service) – Contains information sources for government, political science, social science, and related topics.
  • SocINDEX (EBSCO) – Identifies articles in all areas of sociology including anthropology, criminology, ethnic & racial studies, gender studies, politics, religion, rural sociology, social psychology, and urban studies.
  • Sport Discus – Scholarly and popular information on all aspects of sports, exercise, training, etc.

Subject-Specific Databases

If you are doing in-depth research on a topic, you will want to use subject-specific databases. These databases usually only contain materials from professional/trade publications and scholarly/academic journals. Below are some examples, but a list of all available subjects can be viewed on the Online Journals and Databases page.

  • ABI/INFORM – Identifies articles on business, finance, and management topics from regional, U.S. and international publications.
  • CINAHL (EBSCO) – (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) – Authoritative coverage of the literature related to nursing and allied health.
  • Historical Abstracts – Scholarly articles on the history of the world from 1450-present.
  • PsycINFO – Identifies articles, books and dissertations in psychology and related subjects.

The Internet and other digital sources of information are widely used tools for research and other information needs. In recent years, many indexing and abstracting services have provided their content in electronic format. Instead of using a print index, you can now search this material from your computer. The advantages of electronic searching include greater flexibility, more up-to-date material, and, in some cases, access to the actual articles or materials, rather than just a citation.

The purpose of this website is to make people aware about the electronic databases, and to provide them a place where they can get websites for their daily use including learning Internet, improving typing speed, reading newspapers, and educational games for the kids. This website also designed to do a survey on “Electronic Databases and Their Impact on the Library Services with Special Reference to Canada”, that will help the people in finding the information in an easy way and to effectively interact with today’s rapidly emerging computerized retrieval resources. This study will also help the librarians in choosing and evaluating databases.

What is an Electronic Database?

An electronic database is a collection of data arranged in a systematic way to make the search easy and fast. In other words it is a computer-based collection or listing of information, usually organized with searchable elements or fields. The most common type of library database consists of records describing articles in journals or newspapers. Retrieval from this information store is basically accomplished through a matching process. The process of matching customer’s query against information in databases is the essence of computerized information retrieval.

Why use electronic databases?

Electronic Databases are the major sources of information. Increasingly, information is being published only in electronic formats. There is coverage in virtually all areas of knowledge: science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, agriculture, psychology, sociology, philosophy, law, business, economics, education and more. A single database may refer to a variety of sources, including periodical articles, books, government documents, industry reports, papers at meetings, newspaper items, films, video recordings etc.

With a terminal with Internet connection you can be seconds away from receiving valuable information on any imaginable topic. These rich and voluminous databases are stored in by the information companies or agencies known as retrieval services. Once you are connected to them, much of the world’s knowledge literally will be at your fingertips.

As an information source a database may be shared by thousands of users simultaneously, and it is available whenever the retrieval service is in operation. There is no limit to the number of times a database can be searched or the number of times an item can be displayed. Unlike a library book, databases do not deteriorate physically, nor can they be misplaced, stolen, or vandalized.

The Disadvantages of Online Databases

By Brenda Priddy

Online databases have become prevalent with changes to the Internet involving cloud computing and Web 2.0. These databases store all their information online, where anyone can access it. Online databases also free up localized servers and hard-drive space. However, there are several drawbacks to creating and using online databases.


Hosting a database online takes a more complex server than many companies or schools want to operate. The servers capable of handling databases generally require the upkeep of professional IT personnel. Many of the processes required to operate a database are difficult for online servers and applications to operate. Offline software is more capable of handling the complex tasks necessary to run a thorough database.


The cost of operating and developing a database for online application and operation can be fairly expensive. The owner must pay for the development of the database, which can cost well over $500 for even a simple database, and the owner must also pay for the additional hosting that databases require. Databases require a vast amount of server space, which can make them very expensive to run.


Online databases incur more security risks than offline databases. An online database is easier to hack and can more easily receive viruses and other malware. It usually requires less knowledge and energy to hack into an online database because so many of the processes and data are located online rather than in a secure, offline area. This leads to the higher expense of greater security as well as constant monitoring of the database by knowledgeable personnel.


Many online databases are limited in the information that they present to users. Most online databases collect data from other sources online. According to research from St. Mary’s University in Texas, much of the information online is limited to the years in which the Internet has been around–from 1990 onward. There are few legitimate sources online for data beyond recent history. Much of the data on the Internet is limited to 20th and 21st century knowledge.


An online database typically has limited search ranges and available topics. This is sometimes due to the limited spacing available to house the database online. With limited topics and search ranges, data collected from online databases is often less informative than that of databases from offline sources.


Another disadvantage to online databases is the difficulty in searching. Search terms must be exact to bring up results, which can be frustrating for someone who does not know the exact phrasing to search for. According to research presented at San Mateo Community College, cross-referencing is much harder with online databases.


Database – Advantages & Disadvantages


  • Reduced data redundancy
  • Reduced updating errors and increased consistency
  • Greater data integrity and independence from applications programs
  • Improved data access to users through use of host and query languages
  • Improved data security
  • Reduced data entry, storage, and retrieval costs
  • Facilitated development of new applications program


  • Database systems are complex, difficult, and time-consuming to design
  • Substantial hardware and software start-up costs
  • Damage to database affects virtually all applications programs
  • Extensive conversion costs in moving form a file-based system to a database system
  • Initial training required for all programmers and users

An online database software has the main feature of always being accessible via the web. You do not have to download and install programs on your computer, you need only a browser and an internet connection. We have chosen for our clients the best features of database software combined with a simple and intuitive interface.

Databases, Tables and Form

Create databases has never been so easy with a simple and clean. Populate the form with fields for each type:

  • Numeric ID
  • Short text
  • Long text
  • Number
  • Yes/No
  • Date-time
  • Dropdown
  • Radio
  • Checkbox
  • Url
  • File
  • Email
  • Currency
  • Formula

Importing from an Excel file

In a few seconds you import data from Excel and automatically create a table in your database. You can also choose to edit or add to the existing data in a table in your database.

Search engine

With BaseBear your information will always be at your fingertips with an automatic search on all columns or using the advanced search with conditional filter.


Have a date-time columns? Then you can connect the tables to your database. The calendar is ideal when you need to handle events, bookings, organize tasks and much more …

Email Notifications

Use notifications to keep updated on your data. You can set more than one recipient and optionally enable notification about inserting, editing and deleting records.


Share your database with your team or your customers. You can choose to show only those tables, hide columns, prevent editing, and deleting data. Data sharing in BaseBear is highly customizable.

Data Access

You have so many ways to stay connected to your data:

  • Via web interface accessible from both your desktop computer or mobile with tablets and smartphones.
  • With the export of data to Excel, CSV and TSV.
  • Programming APIs to build applications that connect to your database.

sejarahperkembangan sila klik link ini e-library

SSN 1522-0222

Digital Libraries: Functionality, Usability, and Accessibility

Dr Mayank Trivedi
University Librarian
Sardar Patel University
Vallabhvidyanagar-388120, Gujarat, India


Rapid advances in information technologies have revolutionized the role of libraries. As a result, libraries face new challenges, competitors, demands, and expectations. Libraries are redesigning services and information products to add value to their services and to satisfy the changing information needs of the user community. Traditional libraries are still handling largely printed materials that are expensive and bulky. Information seekers are no longer satisfied with only printed materials. They want to supplement the printed information with more dynamic electronic resources. Demands for digital information are increasing.

Digital libraries will start gaining ground in India in the present century. We are heading toward an environment in which digital information may substitute for much print-based information. A library’s existence does not depend on the physical form of documents. Its mission is to link the past and the present, and help shape the future by preserving the records of human culture, as well as integrating emerging information technologies. This mission is unlikely to change in the near future.

Digital libraries come in many forms. They attempt to provide instant access to digitized information and consist of a variety of information, including multimedia.


A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers. The content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely. The first published use of the term may have been in a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives. The term was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994. Bush (1945) created a vision based on experience (“Digital library.”)

The Digital Library Federation defines digital libraries as:

Organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily available for use by a defined community or set of communities. (Shiri 2003)

The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model defines a digital library as:

An organization, which might be virtual, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long term rich digital content, and offers to its user communities specialized functionality on that content, of measurable quality and according to codified policies. (“Digital Library”)

A digital library is not a single entity. It requires technology link the resources of many collections. The links between digital libraries and their resources are transparent to users. Digital library collections are not limited to document surrogates (bibliographic records. They are the actual digital objects such as images, texts, etc.

Lynch (1994) says that, “digital Libraries … [provide] users with coherent sccess to a very large, organized repository of information and knowledge.” According to Berkeley Digital Library Project, University of California, the digital library will be a collection of distributed information sources. The contrast between traditional and digital libraries is presented below

Traditional Libraries Digital or Electronic Library
Print collection All resources in digital form.
Stable, with slow evolution Dynamic and ephemeral
Individual objects not directly linked with each other. Multi-media and fractal objects
Flat structure with minimal contextual metadata Scaffolding of data structures and richer contextual metadata.
Scholarly content with validation process More than scholarly content with various validation processes
Limited access points and centralized management Unlimited access points, distributed collections and access control
The physical and logical organization correlated. The physical and logical organization may be virtually
One way interactions Dynamic realtime dialogue
Free and universal access. Free as well as fee based.

Characteristics of Digital Libraries

Recent developments in library technology and practices have helped bring some of Lancaster ‘s paperless society to reality. The effects that digital technology has brought include: (Jebaraj and Deivasigimani 2003)

Digital library collections contain permanent documents. The digital environment will enable quick handling and/or ephemeral information. Digital libraries are based on digital technologies. The assumption that digital libraries will contain only digital materials may be wrong. Digital libraries are often used by individuals working alone. The physical boundaries of data have been eliminated. Support for communications and collaboration is as important as information-seeking.

Compression of data storage is enabling publication and storage of digital information. Telecommunications is facilitating the storage, retrieval, use, and exchange of digital resources.

Function of Digital Library

  • Access to large amounts of information to users wherever they are and whenever they need it.
  • Access to primary information sources.
  • Support multimedia content along with text
  • Network accessibility on Intranet and Internet
  • User-friendly interface
  • Hypertext links for navigation
  • Client-server architecture
  • Advanced search and retrieval.
  • Integration with other digital libraries.

Purpose of Digital Library

  • Expedite the systematic development of procedures to collect, store, and organize, information in digital form.
  • Promote efficient delivery of information economically to all users.
  • Encourage co-operative efforts in research resource, computing, and communication networks.
  • Strengthen communication and collaboration between and among educational institutions.
  • Take leadership role in the generation and dissemination of knowledge


The components of a digital library are:

  • Infrastructure
  • Digital Collection
  • Systems function
  • Telecommunication facility
  • Human resources

Planning for Digital Library

A digital library committee should be formed to plan for its creation and maintenance. The members must be from various library departments, and, if necessary, consultants can be hired. There are at least two ways of developing a digital library: converting a traditional library into a digital library, and direct development of a digital library.

Planning includes:

  • IT Infrastructure
  • Digitization
  • Access
  • Staffing
  • Furniture, equipment, and space
  • Services
  • Funding

Creation of Digital Resources

  • Database of digital material that is open to all users over the campus-wide LAN.
  • High bandwidth Internet connectivity
  • Focus selectively on acquiring digital resources
  • Electronic journals, and gradual elimination of print subscriptions
  • Licensed databases
  • Creation of local digital content available within the university

Advantages of a Digital Library

The advantages of digital libraries include

  • Nearly unlimited storage space at a much lower cost
  • Re-allocate funds from some staff, collection maintenance, and additional books.
  • No physical boundary
  • Round the clock availability
  • Multiple access
  • Enhanced information retrieval.
  • Preservation for some print material
  • Added value
  • Universal accessibility


  • Lack of screening or validation
  • Lack of preservation of a fixed copy (for the record and for duplicating scientific research)
  • Lack of preservation of “best in class”
  • Difficulty in knowing and locating everything that is available, and differentiating valuable from useless information.
  • Job loss for traditional publishers and librarians
  • Costs are spread and many become hidden.

Digital Library Initiatives in India

India is in the experimental stages of digital libraries. Barring the Health Education Library for People (HELP), Mumbai, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, IIT Kharagpur, and National Centre for Science Information (NCSI), Bangalore, a majority of libraries provide bibliographic access only. IASLIC-LIST and the LIS-FORUM, along with the electronic newsletter, INFOWATCH provide professional information. Information today and Tomorrow , INFLIBNET Newsletter , and the DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology (D-BIT) are a few other sources of current information on the use of ICTs and networks in India. Research and development activities regarding digital libraries are being undertaken in some institutions, for example, at the Education and Research network (ERNET) of Department of Electronics, Gol ( ) and the electronic library being developed at the Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (NISCAIR), New Delhi ( ). A brief account of some of the resources and services is presented below.

The situation in India regarding digital libraries is very peculiar. Many government agencies, as well as institutions, mostly in the public sector, are engaged in some sort of work regarding the digitization of libraries. Examples clearly indicate that the potential of ICTs for developing digital libraries has not been fully realized by the GoI. While one government agency is providing support for one particular aspect, the other is focusing elsewhere, without any coordinated effort by a nodal agency.


There will be continuing expansion of digital library activities. LIS and computer science professionals face challenges that will lead to improved systems. More and more libraries will have departments and programs in the digital library arena. Digital libraries will build upon work being done in the information and data management area. Digital libraries provide an effective means to distribute learning resources to students and other users. Planning a digital library requires thoughtful analysis of the organization and its users, and an acknowledgement of the cost and the need for infrastructure and ongoing maintenance (Adams, Jansen, and Smith 1999). Digital Libraries present opportunities and challenges for the library and information communities and all stakeholders.

DIGITAL LIBRARIES: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF USEFUL RESOURCES Concept and Theory of a Digital Library: “Based on the idea of a library or information service providing virtual anywhere/anytime electronic access through the Internet to documents and or services.” A digital library will direct users to electronic collections, such as research papers or video clips that document in great detail the history of a particular locale or area or that offer a unique thematic perspective on a subject. The main benefit of constructing a digital library is the ability to provide 24 hour, remote access to high demand items from multiple users worldwide. The best way of discovering the potential of such a service is to look at actual examples: ALA Task Force on Digitization Policy: (from the American Library Association, includes principles, documents and readings) ALA’s Professional Tips for Digitization: from the American Library Association Best Practice Guidelines for Digital Collections (University of Maryland Libraries): Digital Best Practices (Washington State Libraries): Evaluating Digital Libraries: A User-Friendly Guide Strategies for Building Digitized Collections: by the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR). Digital Library Colloquium from Carnegie Mellon University Libraries: free research reports and conference papers, some in Video and Powerpoint format:

Click to access DIGITAL+LIBRARIES+BIB+JUNE+18+2009rev.pdf